Lesson Four: Words Are Not Always Pronounced The Way They Are Spelt

In English it can often be very confusing when you see a word written down to know how to say it. This section has some simple rules and examples that will greatly improve your pronunciation and save you much time in learning English pronunciation.

One Or Two Syllables At The End Of A Word?

There are many words in English where it is not clear whether there is an extra syllable at the end. For example, is ‘liked’ all one syllable, or two? How about ‘added’?
Now you most likely know these words, however how do you pronounce a word you have not seen before? Here are some rules that will help you in this situation.

‘ed’ At The End Of A Word

Most of the time, ‘ed’ at the end of a word does not mean there is a separate syllable.For exampled ‘liked’ is a one syllable word.
Here are some examples of words that follow this rule:
liked  disturbed  performed  exposed  
However there are some common exceptions, when the following letters come before ‘ed’
d e i o t u
For example words that end with ‘ded’, ‘eed’, ‘ied’ all have two syllables at the end.
Here are some words that break this rule:
ad ded  at ten ded  col lec ted  a pplied  
These are two syllable words because d/e/i/o/t/u come before the ‘ed’

‘e’ At The End Of A Word


  1. It is a separate syllable when the following letters come before ‘e’
    a e i o
  2. It is a not a separate syllable when the following letters come before ‘e’
    b c d f g h k n p u z


Rule 1:a gree  re fe ree  mo vie  
Rule 2:tube  type  bone 

Special Letters And Letter Combinations

Here are some letters and letter combinations that can sometimes be difficult. Some common rules are shown to help you.

How To Pronounce ‘c’

‘c’ is a difficult letter, because sometimes it is pronounced ‘hard’ like a ‘k’ in ‘cake’and other times it is ‘soft’ like a ‘s’ in ‘nice’


  1. If ‘c’ is before ‘a’, ‘o’ or ‘u’ then it is often said like a ‘k’Examples:’academy’  ‘balcony’  and ‘acute’  all have the ‘c’ pronounced like a ‘k’
  2. If it is before and ‘e’ or an ‘i’ it is often said like an ‘s’Examples:’adjacent’  and ‘acid’  have the ‘c’ pronounced like an ‘s’

How To Pronounce ‘g’

The letter ‘g’ is most often pronounced like in ‘go’, however sometimes it can be pronounced as a ‘j’ sound, like the ‘j’ sound in ‘just’


It is a ‘j’ sound when it is followed by ‘e: ‘i’ or ‘y’


‘age’  ‘cage’  ‘agile’  and ‘strategy’  all have ‘j’ sound


Begin  giddy  and foggy . These have the ‘g’ sound

The combination ‘wh’

This is usually pronounced as a ‘w’ sound like in ‘white’.However there are some exceptions, where it is pronounced like an ‘h’ sound:


Who  whoever  whole  who’ll  wholly  whom  who’s  whose 

The combination ‘gh’

This is an unusual combination because when it is in the middle of the word, it has nosound at all!


bright is pronounced ‘br ii t’ 
The vowel before ‘gh’ is often long.
When it is at the beginning of a word, it is pronounced as ‘g’


ghost  ghastly 
At the end of the word, it can sometimes be pronounced ‘f’


Cough  enough  laugh  rough  tough 


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